盲法学生进军太空法,“天空不是极限”

2019

02/22
05:03

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19岁的杰梅安妮·富勒生来就是盲人,为了成为一名残疾权利律师,她申请了哈佛大学法学院。但在她第一年的财产课上,富勒发现了太空法,一个她甚至不知道存在的领域。


JULIA HANNA Harvard Law Today


For Jameyanne Fuller ’19, outer space represents infinite possibilities. “I’ve always been an astronomy nerd,” she says. “I went to space camp in third grade, and I took all of the space-focused classes I could in college, but the technology wasn’t really there for me to be a science major.”

That’s a passing reference to the fact that Fuller was born blind. In college, it was easier to pursue other passions—literature and creative writing. Which isn’t to say Fuller shies away from challenging situations. After graduating from Kenyon College, the New Hampshire native traveled to Italy on a Fulbright Scholarship, teaching English and chemistry to students in Assisi, a town of 25,000 in the Umbria region.

对于19年的詹姆安妮富勒来说,外层太空代表着无限的可能性。“我一直都是天文学的书呆子,”她说。“我上三年级的时候去了太空营,在大学里我参加了所有以太空为中心的课程,但是我的科学专业并没有真正的技术。”             这是对富勒天生失明这一事实的一个偶然的参考。在大学里,追求文学和创造性写作的激情更容易。这并不是说富勒回避挑战性的情况。从凯尼恩学院毕业后,这位新罕布什尔州人以富布赖特奖学金前往意大利,在翁布里亚地区的一个25000人的小镇阿西西向学生教授英语和化学。


Italy has laws in place to ensure guide dogs can enter places of business and public spaces. But often Fuller and her black lab, Mopsy, were barred by store owners who felt differently. “Everything in college went so smoothly,” she says. “This was the first time I had to advocate for myself, but it wasn’t to get a textbook or an assignment. It was, I need to get on this bus. I need to get into this store to buy milk. And it was in a different language.”

意大利制定了法律,确保导盲犬可以进入商业和公共场所。但经常是富勒和她的黑色爱犬,莫西,被商店老板禁止,他们有不同的感觉。她说:“大学里的一切都进展顺利。”“这是我第一次为自己辩护,但这不是为了得到教科书或作业。是的,我需要上车。我要去这家商店买牛奶。它用的是另一种语言。”    


She laughs now, at what was no doubt an unpleasant, stressful experience. The prevailing attitude, she explains, was that anyone with a disability should be at home with family. But by the end of the year, people told her they were using her example to encourage other blind people they knew. “I saw the difference I could make, just by buying groceries,” she says. The year abroad convinced her to apply to law school, with the goal of becoming a disability rights lawyer.

Everyone told Fuller the first year of law school would be a serious undertaking, but she was still taken by surprise: “I’ve never worked so hard or felt so stupid.” But there were plenty of wonderful discoveries, too. In her 1L property class, Fuller heard about space law, a field she hadn’t even known existed. “It was a way to combine all the things I love,” she says simply. “Space law has been around in some form since the Russians launched Sputnik, but it’s still undefined and completely fascinating.” There are a number of international treaties and federal regulations, she explains, but many unanswered questions remain in the area of private industry. Can a for-profit company mine an asteroid, for example, when international regulations state that no country can own it?

她笑了,毫无疑问,这是一次不愉快的、有压力的经历。她解释说,普遍的态度是,任何残疾人士都应该在家里和家人在一起。但到今年年底,人们告诉她,他们正在用她的例子来鼓励他们认识的其他盲人。她说:“我看到了我能做的改变,只要买些杂货就行了。”在国外的那一年,她坚信要申请法学院,目标是成为一名残疾权利律师。             每个人都告诉富勒,法学院的第一年将是一项严肃的事业,但她仍然感到惊讶:“我从来没有这么努力过,也没有觉得自己如此愚蠢。”但也有很多奇妙的发现。在她的1L财产课上,富勒听说了太空法,一个她甚至不知道存在的领域。她简单地说:“这是一种结合我所爱的一切的方式。”“自从俄国人发射人造卫星以来,太空法一直以某种形式存在,但它仍然是不明确和完全迷人的。”她解释说,有许多国际条约和联邦法规,但许多悬而未决的问题仍然存在于私营工业领域。例如,当国际法规规定没有国家可以拥有小行星时,一家营利性公司是否可以开采它?


Space, as it happens, also figures in Fuller’s writing, which mostly falls into the science fiction and fantasy genres. “I get cranky if I don’t write,” she says. “At orientation, they told us to have something outside law school—something that is yours—to ground you. Writing does that for me, and there’s also the aspect of escaping into a story and creating something completely new.” With several published short stories under her belt, Fuller is drafting a middle-grade science fiction novel and working to complete a few more stories. “I’ve taught myself to write in those awkward 10- or 15-minute spaces that you think are too short to do anything,” she says.

太空,正如它所发生的,也是福勒作品中的人物,这主要是科幻和幻想类型。她说:“如果我不写作,我会变得暴躁。”“在入职培训中,他们告诉我们要在法学院以外的地方做点什么,这是你的事。写作对我来说就是这样,也有逃避故事和创造全新事物的方面。”富勒在她的腰带下出版了几篇短篇小说,她正在起草一部中级科幻小说,并努力完成更多的故事。她说:“我教自己在那些你认为太短而不能做任何事情的10到15分钟的空间里写作。”    


Fuller also keeps a blog, where visitors can find links to her fiction, book recommendations, reflections on space law and guest posts from Neutron, the guide dog she partnered with in 2017 when Mopsy retired. “The first time you get a dog, it’s almost like a miracle,” she says. “You feel like you’re flying down the street.” Neutron does things a little differently from Mopsy, Fuller says. He’s much faster, for one, and likes a challenge, choosing to slalom his way through a construction zone rather than go straight through. “You learn to sense what the dog is doing through the handle of the harness,” she says. “If I’m stressed out, my dog knows it. If he’s stressed out, I know it. Sometimes I can feel him turn to look up at me, as if to say, I did it right, didn’t I?”

富勒还开设了一个博客,在那里游客可以找到她小说的链接、书籍推荐、对太空法的思考以及中子号的访客帖子,中子号是她在2017年与莫西退休时合作的导盲犬。她说:“你第一次养狗,简直是奇迹。”富勒说:“你觉得自己像在街上飞驰。”中子做的事情与闷闷不乐有点不同。他跑得快得多,比如说,他喜欢挑战,他选择在施工区内回旋,而不是直接穿过。她说:“你要学会通过安全带的把手来感觉狗在做什么。”“如果我有压力,我的狗就会知道。如果他有压力,我知道。有时我能感觉到他转过头来看着我,好像在说,我做得对,不是吗?“


Becoming oriented in a new area requires effort, even with a guide dog. Fuller has become expert at making tactile maps with puffy paint and braille labels. A recent change in location for trivia night required a scouting trip to determine the best route through a complicated intersection near Porter Square. When it comes to navigating coursework, she shows off a Braille tablet used for everything—reading cases, taking notes, surfing the internet.

But mostly, Fuller has no interest in dwelling on what differentiates her as a blind person. At HLS she’s involved with the Harvard Journal of Law & Technology and the Harvard Negotiation Law Review, in addition to serving as vice president of special projects for the Space Exploration & Admiralty Law Society. After graduation, she’s looking forward to “getting out there and doing what I’ve been studying for,” hopefully in a federal agency that intersects in some way with space law and technology—maybe even NASA, someday.

One blog post eloquently addresses the question of why Fuller would shift from disability law. She writes, “Disability rights means … pursuing the career I want to pursue. … There is a lot of value in seeing someone with a disability doing something totally unrelated to their disability. And really, this is the point of disability rights: to let people do whatever they want to … just like everybody else.”

在一个新的领域里,即使有导盲犬,也需要努力。富勒已经成为用浮肿的油漆和盲文标签制作触觉地图的专家。最近一次琐事之夜地点的改变需要一次侦察旅行,以确定通过波特广场附近复杂交叉口的最佳路线。当涉及到导航课程时,她展示了一个盲文平板电脑,用于阅读案例、做笔记、上网。             但大多数情况下,富勒对如何区分她是一个盲人没有兴趣。在HLS,她还参与了《哈佛法律与技术杂志》和《哈佛谈判法评论》,并担任空间探索与海事法学会特别项目的副总裁。毕业后,她期待着“走出去,做我一直在学习的事情”,希望有一天,在一个与空间法和技术有某种交叉的联邦机构,甚至是美国宇航局。             一篇博文雄辩地回答了富勒为什么要从残疾法转变的问题。她写道:“残疾权利意味着……追求我想追求的事业。…看到残疾人士做与残疾完全无关的事情有很大的价值。事实上,这就是残疾权利的关键:让人们做他们想做的事……就像其他人一样。”

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